Purpose: To determine performance and utilization of screening breast ultrasonography (US) in women with dense breast tissue who underwent additional screening breast US in the 1st year since implementation of Connecticut Public Act 09-41 requiring radiologists to inform patients with heterogeneous or extremely dense breasts at mammography that they may benefit from such examination.
Materials and Methods: Informed consent was waived for this institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review of 935 women with dense breasts at mammography who subsequently underwent handheld screening and whole-breast US from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010.
Results: Of 935 women, 614 (65.7%) were at low risk, 149 (15.9%) were at intermediate risk, and 87 (9.3%) were at high risk for breast cancer. Of the screening breast US examinations, in 701 (75.0%), results were classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 1 or 2; in 187 (20.0%), results were classified as BI-RADS category 3; and in 47 (5.0%), results were classified as BI-RADS category 4. Of 63 aspirations or biopsies recommended and performed in 53 patients, in nine, lesions were BI-RADS category 3, and in 54, lesions were BI-RADS category 4. Among 63 biopsies and aspirations, three lesions were malignant (all BI-RADS category 4, diagnosed with biopsy). All three cancers were smaller than 1 cm, were found in postmenopausal patients, and were solid masses. One cancer was found in each risk group. In 44 of 935 (4.7%) patients, examination results were false-positive. Overall positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsy or aspirations performed in patients with BI-RADS category 4 masses was 6.5% (three of 46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7%, 19%). Overall cancer detection rate was 3.2 cancers per 1000 women screened (three of 935; 95% CI: 0.8 cancers per 1000 women screened, 10 cancers per 1000 women screened).
Conclusion: Technologist-performed handheld screening breast US offered to women in the general population with dense breasts can aid detection of small mammographically occult breast cancers (cancer detection rate, 0.8–10 cancers per 1000 women screened), although the overall PPV is low.
© RSNA, 2012
Purpose: To examine the sensitivity of ultrasonography (US) compared with conventional radiography in detection of lower limb (thigh) medial arterial calcification (MAC) in type 2 diabetic patients and evaluate its association with diabetes-related complications.
Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and informed written consent was obtained. US was performed in 289 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and MAC severity was assigned a score from 0 to 8. Among the patients, 263 underwent radiographic examinations. All subjects underwent clinical evaluation to detect the presence of diabetes-related complications.
Results: US helped detect MAC in more subjects compared with radiography (65.8% vs 12.2%). US helped detect MAC from mild (scores 1–4) to severe (scores 5–8) degrees, while mild degree of MAC was poorly demonstrated with radiography. The incidence of nephropathy, retinopathy, sensory neuropathy, and macrovascular complications increased with the severity of MAC (based on US scoring). With univariate analysis, the presence of MAC was associated with nephropathy (P < .001), retinopathy (P < .001), sensory neuropathy (P = .004), and macrovascular complications (P < .001). After adjustment for potential confounders, the presence of severe MAC was associated with nephropathy, retinopathy, and macrovascular complications, with the odds ratios of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53, 7.43; P = .003), 2.6 (95% CI: 1.22, 5.32; P = .013), and 3.8 (95% CI: 1.37, 10.6; P = .01), respectively.
Conclusion: In type 2 diabetic Chinese patients, US was more sensitive than conventional radiography in the detection of MAC, particularly when the MAC was mild. The presence of severe MAC was associated with diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and macrovascular complications.
detection of MAC was a potential early marker to identify diabetes-related complications.
© RSNA, 2012