The Sound Judgment Series consists of invited articles highlighting the clinical value of using ultrasound first in specific clinical diagnoses where ultrasound has shown comparative or superior value. The series is meant to serve as an educational tool for medical and sonography students and clinical practitioners and may help integrate ultrasound into clinical practice.
Sonography is widely used for evaluation of hand and wrist lesions. The easy accessibility, cost-effectiveness, and good diagnostic accuracy of sonography coupled with the numerous benefits of real-time imaging make it desirable. The aim of this article is to describe the typical sonographic appearances of lesions in the hand and wrist that are encountered frequently in routine clinical practice, such as inflammatory arthropathies, tumors, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies, and nerve entrapment syndromes. Relevant anatomy, scanning methods, and recent developments in musculoskeletal sonography are also discussed.
Objectives—The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of imaging analysis of cervical elastography to predict successful induction of labor in nulliparous women at term.
Methods—Successful labor induction was defined as onset of active labor within 9 hours or delivery within 24 hours. The Bishop score, cervical length, and cervical elastographic parameters, including cervical area, mean elastographic index, and cervical hard area, were measured and analyzed by the image analyzer.
Results—The areas under the curves for the cervical length, cervical area, Bishop score, mean elastographic index, and cervical hard area were 0.63, 0.64, 0.47, 0.68, and 0.70, respectively, for onset of active labor within 9 hours and 0.70, 0.68, 0.63, 0.71, and 0.76 for delivery within 24 hours. The combination of cervical length and elastographic data was more predictable for successful labor induction (P < .05).
Conclusions—Imaging analysis of cervical elastography is available to predict successful induction of labor.
Objectives—Bedside sonography for diagnosis of pneumothorax has been well described in emergency and trauma medicine literature. Its role in detection of iatrogenic pneumothorax has not been well studied. We describe the performance of bedside sonography for detection of procedure-related pneumothorax and highlight some limitations.
Methods—A total of 185 patients underwent thoracentesis (n = 60), transbronchial biopsy (n = 48), and computed tomography–guided needle lung biopsy (n = 77). Bedside preprocedure and postprocedure transthoracic sonography and postprocedure chest radiograph were performed in all patients. Patients in whom the pleural surface was not well imaged with sonography were said to have a limited examination. Chest radiography was the standard for diagnosing pneumothorax.
Results—Chest radiography showed pneumothorax in 8 of 185 patients (4.0%). These patients had undergone computed tomography–guided needle lung biopsy (n = 7) and transbronchial needle lung biopsy (n = 1). Sonography showed pneumothorax in 7 of these patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 88%, 97%, and 97%, respectively. Limited-quality sonographic examinations due to preexisting lung disease were seen in 43 of 185 patients. The positive and negative likelihood ratios for patients with adequate scans were 55 and 0.17, respectively. The likelihood ratio for patients with limited-quality scans was 1.08.
Conclusions—When a good-quality scan is achieved, bedside chest sonography is a valuable tool for evaluation of postprocedure pneumothorax. Patients with preexisting lung disease, in whom the quality of the sonographic examination is limited, should be studied with chest radiography.
Objectives—The purpose of this study was to evaluate the renal volume and intrarenal hemodynamics with duplex sonography in a group of diabetic patients with normal renal function in comparison to nondiabetic controls.
Methods—The renal volume and resistive index (RI) of segmental arteries were assessed by duplex sonography in 88 diabetic patients (44 male and 44 female; median age, 58 years [range, 37–69 years]) and 73 nondiabetic control participants (48 male and 25 female; median age, 53 years [range, 27–75 years]) without renal artery stenosis.
Conclusions—Changes in renal volume and hemodynamics are detectable on sonography in diabetic patients. Those changes are also present in patients without proteinuria or signs of renal atherosclerosis and with both normal and increased glomerular filtration rates. These results indicate a potential role of duplex sonography in the early identification of morphologic and hemodynamic renal changes in type 2 diabetic patients.