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Chủ Nhật, 1 tháng 12, 2013

RADIOLOGY 12-2013






Serial Cranial US for Detection of Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis in Preterm Infants

Purpose
To report the incidence of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) in a prospective cohort of preterm infants with a gestational age of less than 29 weeks.

Materials and Methods
The local medical ethics review board approved this study, and written parental consent was obtained. Preterm infants with a gestational age of less than 29 weeks who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were prospectively studied with cranial ultrasonography (US). The scanning protocol included visualization with color Doppler imaging of the superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinuses through the anterior (8.5-MHz probe) and mastoid (13-MHz probe) fontanelles. When feasible, magnetic resonance imaging was performed to confirm cranial US-diagnosed CSVT. The differences between preterm infants with and those without CSVT were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney tests for continuous variables and Fisher exact tests for categorical data.

Results
Cranial US was used to document CSVT in 11 of 249 preterm infants with a gestational age of less than 29 weeks. Transverse sinuses were most frequently affected (in all 11 patients with CSVT). All infants with CSVT were asymptomatic. Postnatal age at diagnosis ranged from 5 to 34 days. The mean gestational age was significantly lower in infants with CSVT (25.9 weeks vs 26.8 weeks, P = .038). Of the risk factors studied, only duration of mechanical ventilation was associated with CSVT; it was significantly longer in the CSVT group.

Conclusion
Systematic serial cranial US of infants with a gestational age of less than 29 weeks showed a remarkably high incidence of CSVT of 4.4%. Cranial US including color Doppler imaging with scans obtained through the mastoid fontanelle can depict CSVT at an early stage. Treatment of this possibly important condition needs attention.
© RSNA, 2013





Quantitative Elastography of Liver Fibrosis and Spleen Stiffness in Chronic Hepatitis B Carriers: Comparison of Shear-Wave Elastography and Transient Elastography with Liver Biopsy Correlation


Purpose
To document utility of shear-wave (SW) elastography for assessing liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and to compare its performance with that of transient elastography.

Materials and Methods
Ethics committee approved the study, and informed consent was obtained. Patients with liver biopsy correlation (n = 226) and healthy patients (n = 171) were analyzed. Results of SW elastography of liver, SW elastography of spleen, and transient elastography of liver were compared and correlated according to METAVIR scores. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs), binary logistic regression, and Delong test were used.

Results
AUC for SW elastography of liver, transient elastography of liver, and SW elastography of spleen was, respectively, 0.86, 0.80, and 0.81 for fibrosis (≥F1 stage); 0.88, 0.78, and 0.82 for moderate fibrosis (≥F2 stage); 0.93, 0.83, and 0.83 for severe fibrosis (≥F3 stage); and 0.98, 0.92, and 0.84 for cirrhosis (F4 stage). SW elastography of liver showed significantly higher accuracy than transient elastography of liver and SW elastography of spleen in all fibrosis stages (P = .01–.04). SW elastography of spleen showed similar accuracy with transient elastography of liver (P = .21–.99). Combination SW elastography of liver and SW elastography of spleen to predict fibrosis staging showed diagnostic accuracy not further improved compared with SW elastography of liver alone (similar AUC; ≥F1, P = .87; ≥F2, P = .81; ≥F3, P = .84; ≥F4, P = .88). SW elastography of liver had higher successful rate than transient elastography of liver (98.9% vs 89.6%). Prevalence of discordance in at least two stages with liver histologic staging was 10.2% (23 of 226) for SW elastography of liver and 28.2% (58 of 206) for SW elastography of spleen.

Conclusion
SW elastography provides more accurate correlation of liver elasticity with liver fibrosis stage compared with transient elastography, especially in identification of stage F2 or greater.
© RSNA, 2013

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