Is There Any Difference Between Seminomas and Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors on Shear Wave Elastography?: A Preliminary StudyJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine December 2016 35:2575-2580;Published Online First October 25, 2016, doi:10.7863/ultra.15.12067
Initial Experience With Ultrasound Elastography for Diagnosis of Major Salivary Gland LesionsJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine December 2016 35:2597-2606;Published Online First October 25, 2016, doi:10.7863/ultra.15.11093
Virtual Touch Quantification of the Salivary Glands for Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren SyndromeJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine December 2016 35:2607-2613;Published Online First October 25, 2016, doi:10.7863/ultra.16.01085
Elastographic Findings of Achilles Tendons in Asymptomatic Professional Male Volleyball PlayersJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine December 2016 35:2623-2628;Published Online First October 25, 2016, doi:10.7863/ultra.15.11077
Gel Sonovaginography: A New Way of Evaluating a Variety of Local Vaginal and Cervical DisordersJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine December 2016 35:2699-2715;Published Online First November 7, 2016, doi:10.7863/ultra.16.01068
Is There Any Difference Between Seminomas and Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors on Shear Wave Elastography?
A Preliminary Study
Objectives—The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate seminomas from nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
Methods—Approval for this retrospective study was obtained from the local Ethics Committee of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. Fifteen patients with malignant testicular lesions were examined by grayscale sonography, color or power Doppler sonography, and SWE between February 2011 and October 2015. The size of each lesion, Doppler signal parameters, echogenicity, presence of microlithiasis, unifocality or multifocality, and histopathologic findings were the main factors evaluated.
Results—The mean age of the patients was 33 years (range, 25–55 years). There were no differences between seminomas and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors in terms of Doppler signals, echogenicity, microlithiasis, or focality. Only the homogeneous and heterogeneous echogenicity patterns differed significantly. However, a significant difference was evident in SWE-derived quantitative data.
Conclusions—Seminomas and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors do not differ significantly on grayscale or Doppler sonography, except in terms of homogeneity. However, SWE seems to differentiate seminomas from nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
Initial Experience With Ultrasound Elastography for Diagnosis of Major Salivary Gland Lesions
Objectives—The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound elastography, including conventional strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)-induced strain elastography, and point shear wave elastography (SWE) for diagnosis of major salivary gland lesions.
Methods—Forty major salivary gland lesions underwent conventional sonography, conventional strain elastography, ARFI strain elastography, and point SWE before surgery or biopsy. The diagnostic performances of the sonographic and elastographic techniques were assessed with reference to histopathologic results.
Results—There were 32 benign (7 Warthin tumors, 17 pleomorphic adenomas, and 8 other benign lesions) and 8 malignant (1 squamous carcinoma, 2 metastases, 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma, and 2 malignant lymphomas) major salivary gland lesions on pathologic analysis. No conventional sonographic features or conventional strain elastographic scores were found to be associated with malignancy (all P > .05). The ARFI strain elastographic scores between benign and malignant lesions were statistically different (P = .032) and an ARFI strain elastographic score of 4 or greater was highly predictive of malignancy (P= .025). An ARFI strain elastographic score of greater than 3 achieved specificity of 81.3% (26 of 32) and sensitivity of 62.5% (5 of 8) in differentiating benign from malignant lesions. The shear wave velocity on point SWE did not show a significant difference in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions (6.07 versus 4.43 m/s; P > .05). However, Warthin tumors had a trend to show lower shear wave velocities compared with pleomorphic adenomas (2.84 versus 5.27 m/s; P = .024).
Conclusions—Acoustic radiation force impulse strain elastography may be potentially useful for diagnosing major salivary gland lesions, whereas conventional strain elastography and point SWE are not helpful.
Virtual Touch Quantification of the Salivary Glands for Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome
Objectives—To investigate the value of salivary gland stiffness measured by Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ; Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) for assessment of primary Sjögren syndrome.
Methods—Fifty-four patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, 35 patients without primary Sjögren syndrome (patients with dry mouth and dry eye symptoms), and 52 healthy control volunteers were included in this study. Patients with primary Sjögren syndrome were classified as early or advanced stage by labial gland biopsies. All participants underwent B-mode sonography, on which the salivary glands (parotid and submandibular) were identified and VTQ measurements of shear wave velocity (SWV) were obtained. The diagnostic performance of SWV was evaluated by sensitivity and specificity at the optimum cutoff point and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.
Results—For submandibular glands, the mean SWV ± SD values were 2.25 ± 0.34 m/s in patients with early-stage primary Sjögren, 1.84 ± 0.20 m/s in patients without primary Sjögren syndrome, and 1.82 ± 0.27 m/s in healthy controls (P< .001). With cutoff values of 2.15 and 2.10 m/s to separate patients with early-stage primary Sjögren syndrome from those without Sjögren syndrome and healthy controls, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.1% and 85.4% and 79.2% and 83.9%, respectively. For parotid glands, the SWV values were 2.78 ± 0.82 m/s in patients with early-stage primary Sjögren syndrome, 1.93 ± 0.33 m/s, in patients without primary Sjögren syndrome, and 1.85 ± 0.31 m/s in healthy controls (P < .001). With cutoff values of 2.18 and 2.10 m/s to separate patients with early-stage primary Sjögren syndrome from those without Sjögren syndrome and healthy controls, the sensitivity and specificity were 89.3 % and 75.3% and 91.4% and 80.0%.
Conclusions—The VTQ technique might be a useful noninvasive strategy for assessment of salivary glands in the early stage of primary Sjögren syndrome.
Elastographic Findings of Achilles Tendons in Asymptomatic Professional Male Volleyball Players
Objectives—Elastography is a new sonographic technique that evaluates the elasticity of different tissues such as the Achilles tendon. In this study, we aimed to investigate the elastographic findings of Achilles tendons in professional athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers.
Methods—Twenty-one professional male volleyball players with no history of Achilles trauma were included in this study. Twenty-one healthy male volunteers with similar ages and body mass indices were selected as control participants. All participants underwent sonographic and elastographic evaluations of the Achilles tendons to evaluate Achilles tendon thickness and stiffness.
Results—We observed thickening in many of the thirds of the Achilles tendons (right proximal, right middle, left middle, and left distal thirds) of athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers. We did not detect any abnormalities according to the sonographic evaluations in both athletes and healthy volunteers. In the elastographic evaluations, we observed softening in the middle thirds of the Achilles tendons of athletes according to the main types (P < .001) and subtypes (P < .001 for right; and P = .002 for left middle third). There was no difference observed in the elastographic evaluations of the proximal and distal thirds.
Conclusions—On sonography and elastography, we observed thickening and softening in Achilles tendons of athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers who had similar ages and body mass indices. These changes could be associated with early tendon degeneration. Further longitudinal studies may support this consideration.
A New Way of Evaluating a Variety of Local Vaginal and Cervical Disorders
Gel sonovaginography is a new way of assessing local cervical and vaginal disorders, in which regular transvaginal sonography is known to have limitations. In gel sonovaginography, 20 mL of ultrasound gel is instilled into the vagina, followed by examination with a transvaginal transducer. In a study involving 28 women with known or suspected disorders such as cervical and vaginal cancer, cervical polyps, vaginal septa, and deep infiltrating endometriosis, a substantial improvement in visualization and assessment of local lesions and structures was noted with gel sonovaginography. This simple technique appears to be valuable for accurate diagnosis of local cervical and vaginal disorders.
Role of Sonography for Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies
Foreign body ingestion is frequently encountered in children. The locations of the foreign bodies and the period during which they have been present in the thorax and abdomen are important for determining the method and timing of treatment. Although plain radiography and computed tomography are primarily used for assessment of foreign bodies, sonography without radiation is also useful for diagnosis of foreign bodies. This report describes 5 cases of foreign bodies in the digestive tract and the usefulness of sonography for real-time evaluation of foreign bodies with high spatial resolution. Physicians can use sonography along with radiography and computed tomography in cases involving foreign bodies.