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Thứ Ba, 26 tháng 6, 2012

JUM 7-2012 Selected Abstracts

1.   Assessment of Cystitis Glandularis by Transvaginal Sonography in Women

Objectives— The aims of this retrospective study were to determine the accuracy of transvaginal sonography for diagnosing cystitis glandularis in women and to describe the sonographic features of cystitis glandularis masses in confirmed cases.

Methods— For 90 patients with clinically or sonographically suspected cystitis glandularis, we retrospectively reviewed the imaging files. Twenty-one cases were confirmed by histopathologic examination. All patients had undergone transvaginal sonography to evaluate bladder masses in a standardized manner no more than 1 week before histopathologic examination. Findings from preoperative transvaginal sonography of the masses were described and compared with histopathologic findings.

Results— Cystitis glandularis masses were correctly identified on transvaginal sonography in 15 of 21 cases (71.4%), whereas 6 of 21 (28.6%) had negative preoperative sonographic findings. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of transvaginal sonography for diagnosing cystitis glandularis were 71.4% (15 of 21), 92.8% (64 of 69), 75.0% (15 of 20), and 91.4% (64 of 70), respectively, and the total accuracy was 87.8% (79 of 90).

Conclusions— Detection of cystitis glandularis masses by transvaginal sonography depends on the mucosal surface roughness, bladder wall thickness, outer bladder wall continuity, mixed echoes, sparse vessels, and mobility of the cervix. Transvaginal sonography is a promising modality for identifying cystitis glandularis masses.

o    © 2012 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

2.Utility of Targeted Sonography in Management of Probably Benign Breast Lesions Identified on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Objectives— The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of targeted sonography in the management of probably benign breast lesions detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods— A total of 4370 consecutive contrast-enhanced breast MRI examinations from March 1, 2004, to March 1, 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. The study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant and Institutional Review Board approved. When targeted sonography was recommended for a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 examination, results of the sonography and any subsequent breast pathologic examinations were recorded. The frequency of identifying the MRI-detected lesions and the rate at which the BI-RADS category was changed by sonography were calculated for mass and non–mass-like lesions.

Results— Of the 4370 examinations, 349 (8%) had BI-RADS 3 findings in 346 patients. One hundred eighteen lesions underwent targeted sonography for evaluation of 85 masses and 33 areas of non–mass-like enhancement. Of these 118 lesions, 54 (46%) were seen on sonography. No cancers were detected on sonography in the areas of non–mass-like enhancement. Two of the 85 masses (2.4%) evaluated with targeted sonography had a malignant diagnosis before initiation of follow-up.

Conclusions— Selective use of targeted sonography, particularly in masses, may help identify some malignancies before initiating short-interval follow-up for MRI-detected BI-RADS 3 lesions.

3.Evaluation of Pancreatic Allografts With Sonography

Objectives— The purposes of this study were to develop a protocol for evaluating pancreas allografts, to describe a method for successfully studying pancreatic transplants, and to determine whether the resistive index (RI) of the splenic artery is a useful differentiator between complications.

Methods— We retrospectively analyzed clinical, surgical, procedural, and radiologic reports in 51 consecutive patients undergoing 182 sonographic examinations during a 4.5-year period. Complications included splenic vein thrombosis, rejection, and pancreatitis. We obtained RIs in normal and complication groups and performed mixed model regression methods and receiver operating characteristic analysis.

Results— The mean RI ± SD for normal transplants was 0.65 ± 0.09; for splenic vein thrombosis, 0.76 ± 0.09; after resolution of splenic vein thrombosis, 0.73 ± 0.09; during rejection, 0.94 ± 0.09; after successful treatment of rejection, 0.74 ± 0.09; for pancreatitis, 0.83 ± 0.09; and for fluid collections, 0.66 ± 0.09. There was a statistically significant difference (P < .05) between normal transplants and splenic vein thrombosis (P = .0003), rejection (P < .0001), and pancreatitis (P = .04). A significant difference was also seen between rejection and successful treatment thereof (P < .0001).

Conclusions— We developed a protocol that allowed us to successfully evaluate 96% of the pancreatic allografts studied. Furthermore, our data show that the RI can be used as a therapeutic guide. When the RI is less than 0.65, the risk of vascular abnormalities is very low; however, fluid collections may be present. When greater than 0.75, splenic vein thrombosis, pancreatitis, or rejection should be suspected. When greater than 0.9, rejection must be seriously considered.

4. Real-time Elastography for Diagnosis of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B

Objectives— The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the value of real-time ultrasound elastography for diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and to correlate the elastographic findings with histologic stages of liver fibrosis and blood parameters.

Methods— Liver biopsies, blood testing, and real-time elastography were performed in 71 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis. The ratio of the elastic strain of liver tissue to that of muscle tissue was determined and correlated with the histologic fibrosis stages and laboratory examination results.

Results— There was a highly negative correlation between the elastic strain ratio and the histologic fibrosis stage (Spearman r = −0.702; P < .001). There was a high correlation observed between a decreasing elastic strain ratio and an increasing fibrosis stage. With substantial liver fibrosis (Scheuer score ≥S2) and cirrhosis (S4) as diagnostic criteria, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of the elastic strain ratios were 0.863 and 0.797, respectively. The AUC for substantial fibrosis was higher than the AUC for the blood parameters used to diagnose substantial liver fibrosis. Elastic strain ratio cutoff values of 1.10 and 0.60 were identified as diagnostic of substantial fibrosis and cirrhosis, respectively, with sensitivities of 77.8% and 50.0%, respectively, and specificities of 80.0% and 96.7%.

Conclusions— Real-time elastography is a new clinically promising and noninvasive method for quantitative assessment of liver fibrosis.

5. Semiquantitative Strain Elastography of Liver Masses

Objectives— This study was designed to determine the utility of semiquantitative strain elastography in differential diagnosis of solid liver masses.

Methods— A total of 103 patients with focal liver masses underwent abdominal sonographic examinations and freehand elastography of focal hepatic lesions. Eighty-two patients (79.7%) with 93 focal hepatic lesions were included in the study. Twenty-one patients (20.3%) were excluded from the study because of technical limitations of semi-quantitative strain elastography and difficulty in detection of normal liver parenchyma on gray-scale sonography. We evaluated different focal hepatic lesions such as hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, adenomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, metastases, and cholangiocarcinomas. The stiffness of the lesions was determined by measurement of strain values on semiquantitative strain elastography. The strain index value (strain ratio of liver parenchyma and focal lesions) of each lesion was calculated. Mean strain index values of benign and malignant liver lesions were compared.

Results— The mean strain index value of malignant liver lesions ± SD (2.82 ± 1.82) was significantly higher than that of benign liver lesions (1.45 ± 1.28; P< .0001). Hemangiomas had a significantly lower mean strain index value than other benign lesions (P < .0034). There was no statistically significant difference between strain index values of different types of malignant lesions (P > .05).

Conclusions— Semiquantitative strain elastography may be helpful for differentiating benign and malignant liver masses. The substantial overlap between strain index values of benign and malignant liver masses limits clinical usefulness of this technique.

6. Hepatofugal Portal Venous Flow on Doppler Sonography After Liver Transplantation
Analysis of Presumed Causes Based on Radiologic and Pathologic Features

Objectives— The purpose of this study was to categorize hepatofugal portal venous flow on Doppler sonography after liver transplantation and to investigate its clinical importance and presumed causes based on radiologic and pathologic findings.

Methods— This retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Examination of our database over 4 years revealed 30 patients in whom Doppler sonography showed hepatofugal portal venous flow during follow-up periods. We investigated its occurrence and clinical features, including radiologic and pathologic findings, and classified the possible causes into 5 types: A, systemic problems; B, gross vascular abnormalities correctable by intervention; C, specific cardiac problems; D, microscopic abnormalities of the graft; and E, miscellaneous. We classified the patterns of hepatofugal portal venous flow into continuous hepatofugal or hepatofugal-dominant to-and-fro flow and hepatopetal-dominant to-and-fro flow, and we investigated the relationship of the presumed causes and flow patterns with the clinical course.

Results— The incidence of hepatofugal portal venous flow was 2.38%. The overall mortality rate was 26.67% (95% confidence interval, 11.1%–42.9%): all patients (n = 5) in group A, 1 in group C, and 2 in group D, died. Possible cause type B and a mainly hepatopetal flow pattern were good prognostic factors (P = .031 and .018, respectively).

Conclusions— Hepatofugal portal venous flow reflects diverse pathologic conditions after liver transplantation, and its clinical importance also differs depending on the cause.

7. Sonoelastographic Qualitative Analysis for Management of Salivary Gland Masses

Objectives— Our aim was to investigate whether the use of a qualitative elasticity scoring method by sonoelastography is beneficial for management of salivary gland masses.

Methods— Thirty-six patients with salivary gland masses (30 parotid and 6 sub-mandibular) were prospectively included in this study. For each lesion, B-mode sonographic and sonoelastographic images were obtained. Elasticity scores were determined by a 4-point scoring method. Differences among scores for benign and malignant masses were assessed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Qualitative variables were compared by the Pearson χ2 test. The findings were compared with histopathologic diagnoses.

Results— The score values of 28 benign masses ranged from 1 to 4, whereas the values of 8 malignant masses ranged from 2 to 4. The mean scores ± SD were 2.25 ± 0.92 for benign lesions and 3.0 ± 0.75 for malignant lesions (P < .05). When we considered scores 1 and 2 as benign and scores 3 and 4 as malignant, 10 false-positive results were determined by the 4-point scoring method, and 64.2% of benign masses were diagnosed.

Conclusions— Sonoelastography might be regarded as another sonographic parameter for management of salivary gland masses in terms of detecting benign masses.

8. Speckle-Tracking Sonographic Assessment of Longitudinal Motion of the Flexor Tendon and Subsynovial Tissue in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Objectives— The aim of this study was to image both tendon and subsynovial connective tissue movement in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy control volunteers, using sonography with speckle tracking. To estimate accuracy of this tracking method, we used in vivo measurements during surgery to validate the motion estimated with sonography.

Methods— We recruited 22 healthy volunteers and 18 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Longitudinal sonograms of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and subsynovial connective tissue were obtained during finger flexion and extension. The images were analyzed with a speckle-tracking algorithm. The ratio of the subsynovial connective tissue velocity to tendon velocity was calculated as the maximum velocity ratio, and the shear index, the ratio of tendon to subsynovial connective tissue motion, was calculated. For validation, we recorded flexor digitorum superficialis tendon motion during open carpal tunnel release.

Results— The shear index was higher in patients than controls (P < .05), whereas the maximum velocity ratio in extension was lower in patients than controls (P < .05). We found good intraclass correlation coefficients (>0.08) for shear index and maximum velocity ratio measurements between speckle-tracking and in vivo measurements. Bland-Altman analyses showed that all measurements remained within the limits of agreement.

Conclusions— Speckle tracking is a potentially useful method to assess the biomechanics within the carpal tunnel and to distinguish between healthy individuals and patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. This method, however, needs to be further developed for clinical use, with the shear index and maximum velocity ratio as possible differentiating parameters between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy individuals.

© 2012 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

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