Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Methods: A total of 112 patients with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or a positive digital rectal examination were evaluated using three-dimensional greyscale transrectal ultrasound (3D-GS TRUS) and three-dimensional power Doppler sonography (3D-PDS). Target biopsies were obtained together with 12 core systematic biopsies. Pathological results were correlated with the imaging data.
Results: Cancers were detected in 269 biopsy sites from 41 patients. 229 sites of cancer were depicted by 3D-GS TRUS and 213 sites were depicted by 3D-PDS. 30 sites were missed by both 3D-GS TRUS and 3D-PDS. Abnormal prostate images depicted by 3D-GS TRUS and 3D-PDS were associated with lesions with a Gleason score of 6.9 or higher.
Conclusion: The detection rates of prostate cancer were significantly improved with 3D-GS TRUS and 3D-PDS on serum PSA levels >10 ng ml–1 or 20 ng ml–1. 3D-GS TRUS and 3D-PDS may improve the biopsy
determining appropriate sites for target and systematic biopsies. The abnormalities detected by 3D ultrasound were associated with moderate- and high-grade prostate cancers. However, based on the number of false-negative TRUS results, the use of systematic prostate biopsies should not be eliminated.