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Thứ Sáu, 4 tháng 10, 2013


High intensity focused ultrasound in air may provide a means for medical and biological imaging without direct coupling of an ultrasound probe. In this study, an approach based on highly focused ultrasound in air is described and the feasibility of the technique is assessed. The overall method is based on the observations that (1) ultrasound in air has superior focusing ability and stronger nonlinear harmonic generation as compared to tissue propagation and (2) a tightly focused field directed into tissue causes point-like spreading that may be regarded as a source for generalized diffraction tomography. Simulations of a spherically-curved transducer are performed, where the transducer's radiation pattern is directed from air into tissue. It is predicted that a focal pressure of 162 dB (2.5 kPa) is sufficient to direct ultrasound through the body, and provide a small but measurable signal (~1 mPa) upon exit. Based on the simulations, a 20 cm diameter array consisting of 298 transducers is constructed. For this feasibility study, a 40 kHz resonance frequency is selected based on the commercial availability of such transducers. The array is used to focus through water and acrylic phantoms, and the time history of the exiting signal is evaluated. Sufficient data are acquired to demonstrate a low-resolution tomographic reconstruction. Finally, to demonstrate the feasibility to record a signal in vivo, a 75 mm × 55 mm section of a human hand is imaged in a C-mode configuration.

Non-contact ultrasound

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Non-contact ultrasound (NCU) is a method of non-destructive testing where ultrasound is generated and used to test materials without the generating sensor making direct or indirect contact with the test material or test subject. Historically this has been difficult to do, as a typical transducer is very inefficient in air.[1] Therefore most conventional ultrasound methods require the use of some type of acoustic coupling medium in order to efficiently transmit the energy from the sensor to the test material. Couplant materials can range from gels or jets of water to direct solder bonds. However in non-contact ultrasound, ambient air is the only acoustic coupling medium.
An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), is a type of non-contact ultrasound that generates an ultrasonic pulse which reflects off the sample and induces an electric current in the receiver. This is interpreted by software and provides clues about the internal structure of the sample such as cracks or faults. [2]
Research is continuing to improve traditional transducers by applying different plastics, elastomers, and other materials. The sensitivity of these devices continues to improve; a newly developed piezoelectric transducer can produce frequencies in the MHz that can easily propagate through even high acoustic impedance materials such as steel and dense ceramics.[1]
Non-contact ultrasound allows some materials to be inspected which otherwise can’t be inspected due to fear of contamination from couplants or water. In general non-contact ultrasound would facilitate testing of materials or components that are continuously rolled on a production line, in extremely hot environments, coated, oxidized, or otherwise difficult to physically contact. Methods for potential medical use are also being investigated[3]
Laser ultrasonics is another method of non-contact ultrasound.


2.       Jump up ^ Charles Hellier (2003). Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation. McGraw-Hill. pp. 7.43–7.44. ISBN 0-07-028121-1.
3.       Jump up ^ G.T. Clement, H. Nomura, H. Adachi, and T. Kamakura " The feasibility of non-contact ultrasound for medical imaging ," Physics in Medicine and Biology; 2013 58: 6263-6278.

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